Egypt travel guide




Egypt Travel Guide

Egypt History

Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. However the Nile valley forms a natural geographic and economic unit, bounded to the, south by the Cataracts of the Nile, to the north by the sea and east and west by deserts. Egypt is one of ancient civilizations in the world extending to several millennia BC, It was the Pharaoh Menes who united the 2 kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt, inaugurating what came to be known as the Ancient Empire.

Ramses II was other Pharaoh too. Ramses II was to the control from 1279 to 1212 BC and is known for his rising temples, statues, prodigious buildings and other monuments throughout Egypt. Between his major achievements was the signing of the first Peace Treaty to be recorded in history, concluded between Egypt and the Hitites.

History of ancient Egypt

Historians divide Egyptian civilization into 4 Periods, the Old, Middle, New, and the Late Kingdoms. These eras are separated from each another by, respectively, the First, Second, and Third Intermediate periods. During these times the political divisions of Middle and Upper Egypt broke apart under the influence of weak rulers, fragmenting the central government and disrupting the administrative authority of the country.

The more than 3000 year long history of Ancient Egypt has been divided into 8 or 9 periods, sometimes called Kingdoms. The history of ancient Egypt began around 3100 BC when Egypt became a unified Egyptian state, but archaeological evidence indicates that a developed society had formed much earlier. It survived as an independent state until about 343 BC.

In that time, the Ancient Egyptians seem to have developed the notion of dynasties throughout their history. Also, The Palermo Stone simply lists the kings one after the other, without any apparent need of grouping them. The Turin Kinglist, which is more recent, has grouped the kings according to their origin or descendance.

It had 30 dynasties as we use it now to Manetho, an Egyptian priest who lived at the beginning of the Ptolemaic Era. In several cases, but really, it is not clear why Manetho has grouped some kings into one dynasty and other kings into another. The 18th Dynasty, for instance, begin with Ahmose, a brother of the last king in Manetho's 17th Dynasty. Theoretically, Kamose and Ahmose should thus have been grouped in the same dynasty. Thutmosis I, on the other hand, does not appear to have been related to his predecessor, Amenhotep I, but still both kings are grouped in the 18th Dynasty.

Maybe some Egyptologists have attempted to abandon the notions of dynasties and Kingdoms. Actually the visitors may, also, notice that the timeline below and the timescale used throughout The Ancient Egypt Site may be somewhat different from some of the other books or web sites they have consulted.

However also visitors should also be aware that, as is the case with any publication dealing with Ancient Egypt, dates are approximations and should not be taken literally. In several cases it's not known just how long a king may have governed. Comparing diverse publications on the chronology and history of Ancient Egypt, the visitors may also notice that one king may be credited with a fairly short reign in one publication and a fairly long in another. This impacts the absolute chronology, that is to say, Egyptian history using our year numbering.

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