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JUNE 23

Luxor Travel Guide

Luxor History




In last times, Luxor was the ancient town of Thebes, the great capital of Egypt during the New Kingdom, and the glorious town of the God Amon Ra. Also the town was regarded in the Ancient Egyptian texts as T-APT (meaning “the shrine”) and then, in a later period, the Greeks called it tea pie, which the Arabs later pronounced as Thebes. The importance of the town started as early as the 11th Dynasty by King Mento-hotep

In that then the town of Thebes was the capital of the 4 Nome of Upper Egypt. The main local god was the God Amon Ra, who was worshipped with his wife, the Goddess Mutt, and their son, the God Khonsou, the God of the moon. However Thebes was also known as “the town of the 100 gates”, sometimes being called the southern town, to distinguish it from Memphis, the early capital of the Old Kingdom.

In that then, Thebes also played a great role in expelling the invading forces of the Hykos from Upper Egypt. From the time of the 18th Dynasty, through to the 20th Dynasty, the importance of the town had risen as the major political, military and religious capital of Ancient Egypt. Such importance faded during the Late Period, but the God Amon Ra remained the main God until the Greco-Roman period.

When Thebes declined politically, Luxor remained the populated part of the city, which huddled around the Ramesside pylon. A Roman legion had its headquarters inside the 18th dynasty temple, and Coptic churches were built around the temple and in the Ramesside court.

The town of Luxor together with other Theban sites, Karnak, the Valley of the Kings, and the Valley of the Queens was added to UNESCO's World Heritage List in 1979. Excavations and preservation efforts are ongoing. In 1988 the Egyptian Antiquities Organization uncovered numerous 18th dynasty statues at the court of Amenhotep III, and in 1995 work was initiated to preserve the columns and foundations of the court.





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